This disease is the main cause of chronic blindness in the elderly. The cause is unknown. The accompanying factors include: increased age, white race, female gender, family history and smoking. The disease is divided into two groups: 1. Non exudative (dry) 2. Exudative (wet), both progressive and usually bilateral. The exudative form is responsible for 90% of the blinded cases due to the disease.Non-exudative macular degeneration
Non-exudative macular degeneration is characterized by atrophy and degeneration in the outer layer of the retina, the epithelium of the pigment, the broccoli membrane and the mesothelium capillaries. The most commonly found ophthalmoscopy in this case is ‘Drusen’. ‘Dentures’ are distinct, round and yellow, white to calcified deposits, distributed in the macula and posterior pole. Histopathologically, the dentin is a localized eosinophilic component between the epithelium pigmented and the brooch membrane. And indicate the posterior deformities of the epithelium of the pigment. The degree of visual impairment varies in this disease. Electrophysiologic examination is normal in most patients. Preventive treatments that are universally agreed do not exist, but in some cases the administration of antioxidant drugs has been able to reduce the rate of progression of the disease. Most patients will never suffer from a severe reduction in central vision; however, the exudative phase may suddenly develop at any time. In addition to regular examinations, amsler grid patients are given to help report any changes in vision.
Exudative macular degeneration
The main cause of severe reduction of vision in macular degeneration is neovascularization of the sub-retinitis and associated exudative maculopathy. The serous material leaks from the lash and through the gaps in the brook membrane, causing a posterior deformation of the epithelium of the pigmentation. Of course, the most important histopathologic change that makes the patient prone to macular dysplasia and permanently drops the central vision is the creation of new vessels that grow back into the underlying region of the lash. In the early stages of neovascularization, the patient is asymptomatic, and even new arteries may not be detected by ophthalmoscopy or angiography. When a patient with genitourinary degeneration experiences a sudden reduction of central vision, subacute neovascularization should be suspected. If a fundus examination of the blood is found in the sub-retinal, exudate, or gray-laced lesions in the macular region, neovascularization is likely to occur, and an immediate fluorescein angiography is required to identify the lesion. However, some of the neovascular membranes are spontaneously improved; however, its somnolence is a permanent loss of central vision. The final stage of the cicatrians The exudative macular degeneration is a subcutaneous disco-oscillatory disorder, usually a subarachnoid dysfunction, usually in the center, leading to permanent loss of central vision.
In the absence of neovascularization, the usefulness of medical treatment or surgical treatment of retinal pigmented epithelium septum necrosis has not been established. However, if a neovascular membrane exists underneath the outside of the fovea (200 micrometer or more than the center of the fovea-free area), laser-induced photocoagulation is indicated. In 50% of patients undergoing photocoagulation, within 2 years of neovascularization, recurrence of such patients will be necessary.