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Diabetic retinopathy
This year, both the World Health Organization and the Iranian Ministry of Health have focused on the issue of diabetes. You should know that diabetics are not able to properly consume and store glucose; thus, high levels of blood glucose can damage the various vessels, including their retina. The retina is a nerve layer at the back of the eye that receives light waves and sends images of objects to the brain. In ophthalmology, retinal damage is called diabetic retinopathy.
This disorder is divided into two categories: “without angiogenesis” and “angiogenesis”. The first type occurs in the early stages of retinopathy, and in this case the release of blood or fluid from the retina’s vessels leads to swelling and exudation of the exudate in the area. This complication does not affect vision until it is formed in the central region of the retina “macula”.
The second type is affected by the appearance of new veins in the retina. These new vessels are not only unable to supply the retinal blood, but due to abnormal building and placement they can cause bleeding and traction on the retina and its detachment.Way of Detection
The effects of diabetes on the eyes are possible only through accurate ophthalmic examinations, even before vision is affected. If an ophthalmologist finds out the symptoms of retinopathy, he or she will give specific tests or help with OCT imaging.

Treatment method
The best way to treat is to prevent the disease from getting through with proper blood sugar control. In case of high blood pressure or kidney problems, simultaneous treatment is recommended. If a retinopathy accompanied by angiogenesis and glaucoma, “blackwater” may result, a specialist may resort to laser surgery. Intraocular infusion of medications and vitrectomy surgery are other therapeutic measures.